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Anti-Bacterial

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016 Jan 1;58:1160-9. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.068. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Antibacterial nanocarriers of resveratrol with gold and silver nanoparticles.

Park S1, Cha SH2, Cho I3, Park S2, Park Y1, Cho S2, Park Y4.

Author information

Abstract
This study focused on the preparation of resveratrol nanocarrier systems and the evaluation of their in vitro antibacterial activities. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for resveratrol nanocarrier systems were synthesized using green synthetic routes. During the synthesis steps, resveratrol was utilized as a reducing agent to chemically reduce gold and silver ions to AuNPs and AgNPs. This system provides green and eco-friendly synthesis routes that do not involve additional chemical reducing agents. Resveratrol nanocarriers with AuNPs (Res-AuNPs) and AgNPs (Res-AgNPs) were observed to be spherical and to exhibit characteristic surface plasmon resonance at 547 nm and at 412-417 nm, respectively. The mean size of the nanoparticles ranged from 8.32 to 21.84 nm, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The face-centered cubic structure of the Res-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated that the hydroxyl groups and C=C in the aromatic ring of resveratrol were involved in the reduction reaction. Res-AuNPs retained excellent colloidal stability during ultracentrifugation and re-dispersion, suggesting that resveratrol also played a role as a capping agent. Zeta potentials of Res-AuNPs and Res-AgNPs were in the range of -20.58 to -48.54 mV. Generally, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the Res-AuNPs and Res-AgNPs exhibited greater antibacterial activity compared to that of resveratrol alone. Among the tested strains, the highest antibacterial activity of the Res-AuNPs was observed against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the synthesis of Res-AgNPs slightly increased their antibacterial activity. These results suggest that the newly developed resveratrol nanocarrier systems with metallic nanoparticles show potential for application as nano-antibacterial agents with enhanced activities.

KEYWORDS:
Antibacterial activity; Gold nanoparticles; Nanocarriers; Resveratrol; Silver nanoparticles

PMID: 26478416

DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.068

Pterostilbene enhanced anti-methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of oxacillin

Siti Fairuz Ishak, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Dayang Fredalina Basri

Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences

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Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a deadly pathogen that initially was limited to hospital and healthcare facilities but has gradually became a growing problem in healthy children and adults. Pterostilbene belongs to the phenylpropanoid phytoalexin which is involved in plant response to various pathogen and herbivores attack. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-MRSA action of pterostilbene in combination with selected antibiotics; vancomycin, linezolid and oxacillin against ATCC 43300 and ATCC 33591. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index values were determined. Microbroth dilution technique and microdilution checkerboard (MDC) assay were employed. The MIC and MBC of pterostilbene against ATCC 33591 was 31.25 and 62.50 µg mL-1, respectively. While for ATCC 43300, the MBC value was also twice (62.50 µg mL-1) its MIC value of 31.25 µg mL-1. This indicated that pterostilbene was bacteriostatic against both MRSA strains. Our MIC/MBC study also showed that linezolid exhibited bacteriostatic action but, oxacillin and vancomycin were bactericidal. MDC study showed that pterostilbene-oxacillin combination exhibited lowest FIC value (0.56) against both MRSA strains which indicated partial synergistic interaction. On the other hand, pterostilbene was additive (FIC 1.00) in combination with vancomycin whereas pterostilbene-linezolid combination displayed indifference effect with FIC of 1.25 against both MRSA strains. Pterostilbene in combination with oxacillin partially enhanced anti-MRSA activity with twofold reduction in MIC of oxacillin by acting at different site at the bacterial cell wall from that of oxacillin but more specific to the site of action of vancomycin.

Keywords
Bacteriostatic FIC MIC MRSA Pterostilbene Synergism

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Pterostilbene against Candida albicans Biofilms

De-Dong Lia,b, Lan-Xue Zhaoa,c, Eleftherios Mylonakisb, Gan-Hai Hua, Yong Zoud, Tong-Kun Huangd, Lan Yana, Yan Wanga and Yuan-Ying Jianga

http://aac.asm.org/content/58/4/2344.full

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ABSTRACT
Pterostilbene (PTE) is a stilbene-derived phytoalexin that originates from several natural plant sources. In this study, we evaluated the activity of PTE against Candida albicans biofilms and explored the underlying mechanisms. In 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assays, biofilm biomass measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we found that ≤16 μg/ml PTE had a significant effect against C. albicans biofilms in vitro, while it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, which suggested a unique antibiofilm effect of PTE. Then we found that PTE could inhibit biofilm formation and destroy the maintenance of mature biofilms. At 4 μg/ml, PTE decreased cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and suppressed hyphal formation. Gene expression microarrays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that exposure of C. albicans to 16 μg/ml PTE altered the expression of genes that function in morphological transition, ergosterol biosynthesis, oxidoreductase activity, and cell surface and protein unfolding processes (heat shock proteins). Filamentation-related genes, especially those regulated by the Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway, including ECE1, ALS3, HWP1, HGC1, and RAS1 itself, were downregulated upon PTE treatment, indicating that the antibiofilm effect of PTE was related to the Ras/cAMP pathway. Then, we found that the addition of exogenous cAMP reverted the PTE-induced filamentous growth defect. Finally, with a rat central venous catheter infection model, we confirmed the in vivo activity of PTE against C. albicans biofilms. Collectively, PTE had strong activities against C. albicans biofilms both in vitro and in vivo, and these activities were associated with the Ras/cAMP pathway.

Front Microbiol. 2017 Jun 13;8:1103. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01103. eCollection 2017.

Pterostilbene, a Methoxylated Resveratrol Derivative, Efficiently Eradicates Planktonic, Biofilm, and Intracellular MRSA by Topical Application.

Yang SC1, Tseng CH2,3,4,5, Wang PW6, Lu PL7,8, Weng YH1, Yen FL5,9, Fang JY1,10,11.

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Abstract
Pterostilbene is a methoxylated derivative of resveratrol originated from natural sources. We investigated the antibacterial activity of pterostilbene against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the feasibility of using it to treat cutaneous bacteria. The antimicrobial effect was evaluated using an in vitro culture model and an in vivo mouse model of cutaneous infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay demonstrated a superior biocidal activity of pterostilbene compared to resveratrol (8~16-fold) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and clinically isolated vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA). Pterostilbene was found to reduce MRSA biofilm thickness from 18 to 10 μm as detected by confocal microscopy. Pterostilbene showed minimal toxicity to THP-1 cells and was readily engulfed by the macrophages, facilitating the eradication of intracellular MRSA. Pterostilbene exhibited increased skin absorption over resveratrol by 6-fold. Topical pterostilbene application improved the abscess formation produced by MRSA by reducing the bacterial burden and ameliorating the skin architecture. The potent anti-MRSA capability of pterostilbene was related to bacterial membrane leakage, chaperone protein downregulation, and ribosomal protein upregulation. This mechanism of action was different from that of resveratrol according to proteomic analysis and molecular docking. Pterostilbene has the potential to serve as a novel class of topically applied agents for treating MRSA infection in the skin while demonstrating less toxicity to mammalian cells.

KEYWORDS:
MRSA; biofilm; proteomics; pterostilbene; resveratrol; skin infection

PMID: 28659908 PMCID: PMC5468402 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01103