Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:459165. doi: 10.1155/2014/459165. Epub 2014 Jun 25.
Pterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race.
LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012).
Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2015 Jan;29(1):35-42. doi: 10.1002/jbt.21604. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Protective effects of pterostilbene against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of pterostilbene against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Silymarin was used as a standard hepatoprotective agent. A single dose of acetaminophen (800 mg/kg i.p.), injected to male rats, caused significant increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and hepatic contents of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, caspase-3, hydroxyproline, with significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, and hepatic activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase as compared with the control group. On the other hand, administration of each of pterostilbene (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 15 days before acetaminophen ameliorated liver function and oxidative stress parameters. Histopathological evidence confirmed the protection offered by pterostilbene from the tissue damage caused by acetaminophen. In conclusion, pterostilbene possesses multimechanistic hepatoprotective activity that can be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.
Acetaminophen; Antioxidant; Hepatotoxicity; Pterostilbene; Silymarin
PMID: 25201704 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.21604
J Toxicol. 2013;2013:463595. doi: 10.1155/2013/463595. Epub 2013 Feb 4.
Analysis of safety from a human clinical trial with pterostilbene.
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the safety of long-term pterostilbene administration in humans.
The trial was a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial enrolling patients with hypercholesterolemia (defined as a baseline total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL). Eighty subjects were divided equally into one of four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily, (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily, (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily, and (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Safety markers included biochemical and subjective measures. Linear mixed models were used to estimate primary safety measure treatment effects.
The majority of patients completed the trial (91.3%). The average age was 54 years. The majority of patients were females (71%) and Caucasians (70%). There were no adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on hepatic, renal, or glucose markers based on biochemical analysis. There were no statistically significant self-reported or major ADRs.
Pterostilbene is generally safe for use in humans up to 250 mg/day.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 May 15;355(1):25-40. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2012.01.009. Epub 2012 Jan 16.
Long term induction by pterostilbene results in autophagy and cellular differentiation in MCF-7 cells via ROS dependent pathway.
This study shows the effect of pterostilbene on intracellular neutral lipid accumulation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells leading to growth arrest and autophagy. On exposing the breast cancer cells with 30 μM pterostilbene for 72 h there was almost 2-folds increase in neutral lipids and triglycerides. Also the phytochemical caused a 4-folds increase in the expression of adipogenic differentiation marker c/EBPα. Further, pterostilbene inhibited 3β-hydroxylsterol-Δ(7)-reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the last step conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, and thereby causes the intracellular accumulation of the former sterol. These results were associated with over-expression of oxysterol binding protein homologue and liver X receptor (LXR) by ~7-folds. Pterostilbene also caused a simultaneous increase in the expression autophagic marker proteins Beclin 1 and LC3 II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) by approximately 6-folds, which leads to an alternative pathway of autophagy. These effects were observed in association with the loss of mitotic and metastatic potential of MCF-7 cells which was abolished in the presence of catalase (ROS scavenger) or 3MA (autophagic inhibitor). Thus the present data shows that the long term exposure to pterostilbene causes growth arrest in MCF-7 cells which may be due to differentiation of the mammary carcinoma cells into normal epithelial cell like morphology and activation of autophagy.
PMID: 22273805 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2012.01.009
J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 4;53(9):3403-7.
Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
Resveratrol, a stilbenoid antioxidant found in grapes, wine, peanuts and other berries, has been reported to have hypolipidemic properties. We investigated whether resveratrol and its three analogues (pterostilbene, piceatannol, and resveratrol trimethyl ether) would activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) isoform. This nuclear receptor is proposed to mediate the activity of lipid-lowering drugs such as the fibrates. The four stilbenes were evaluated at 1, 10, 100, and 300 microM along with ciprofibrate (positive control), for the activation of endogenous PPARalpha in H4IIEC3 cells. Cells were transfected with a peroxisome proliferator response element-AB (rat fatty acyl CoA beta-oxidase response element)-luciferase gene reporter construct. Pterostilbene demonstrated the highest induction of PPARalpha showing 8- and 14-fold increases in luciferase activity at 100 and 300 microM, respectively, relative to the control. The maximal luciferase activity responses to pterostilbene were higher than those obtained with the hypolipidemic drug, ciprofibrate (33910 and 19460 relative luciferase units, respectively), at 100 microM. Hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed with pterostilbene at 25 ppm of the diet showed 29% lower plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 7% higher plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and 14% lower plasma glucose as compared to the control group. The LDL/HDL ratio was also statistically significantly lower for pterostilbene, as compared to results for the control animals, at this diet concentration. Results from in vitro studies showed that pterostilbene acts as a PPARalpha agonist and may be a more effective PPARalpha agonist and hypolipidemic agent than resveratrol. In vivo studies demonstrate that pterostilbene possesses lipid and glucose lowering effects.
PMID: 15853379 DOI: 10.1021/jf0580364
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Jul;2(7):650-7. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0224. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
Anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene is mediated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in colon cancer cells.
Oxidative/nitrosative stress and generation of proinflammatory cytokines are hallmarks of inflammation. Because chronic inflammation is implicated in several pathologic conditions in humans, including cancers of the colon, anti-inflammatory compounds may be useful chemopreventive agents against colon cancer. Stilbenes, such as resveratrol, have diverse pharmacologic activities, which include anti-inflammation, cancer prevention, a cholesterol-lowering effect, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased life span. We previously showed that pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene), a structural analogue of resveratrol, is present in blueberries and that pterostilbene inhibited expression of certain inflammation-related genes in the colon and suppressed aberrant crypt foci formation in rats. Here, we examined molecular mechanisms of the action of pterostilbene in colon cancer. Pterostilbene reduced cell proliferation, down-regulated the expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1, and increased the level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. A combination of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma, and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide) induced inflammation-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which was significantly suppressed by treatment with pterostilbene. We further identified upstream signaling pathways contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of pterostilbene by investigating multiple signaling pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB, Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Cytokine induction of the p38-activating transcription factor 2 pathway was markedly inhibited by pterostilbene among the different mediators of signaling evaluated. By silencing the expression of the p38 alpha isoform, there was significant reduction in cytokine induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Our data suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is a key signal transduction pathway for eliciting the anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene in cultured HT-29 colon cancer cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Apr 15;777:9-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.02.054. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
Anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-peroxidative role of pterostilbene via Nrf2 signaling in experimental diabetes.
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a key transcription factor triggers the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes thereby providing cellular protective functions against oxidative stress-mediated disorders. Recent research has identified that pharmacological activation of Nrf2 also regulates the largest cluster of genes associated with lipid metabolism. With this background, this paper highlights the anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-peroxidative role of pterostilbene (PTS), an Nrf2 activator, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. PTS administration to diabetic mice for 5 weeks significantly regulated blood glucose levels through the elevation of insulin secretion. The circulatory and liver lipid profiles of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were maintained to normal levels upon PTS treatment. Moreover, PTS administration also normalized the circulatory levels of very low-, low- and high density lipoprotein cholesterols (VLDL-, LDL-, HDL-C) and also reduced lipid peroxidation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In addition, Nrf2 and its downstream targets, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly elevated in liver tissues of diabetic mice upon PTS administration. Further, H&E staining of diabetic mouse liver showed collapse in hepatic microvesicles due to altered lipid metabolism. Both structural and functional alterations were attenuated by PTS indicating its role in diabetic dyslipidemia through Nrf2-mediated mechanism that could be considered as a promising therapeutic agent.
Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Lipids; Nrf2; Pterostilbene; Streptozotocin
PMID: 26921755 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.02.054
J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2012 Jun 7;S5:8.
Suppression of Nitric Oxide Production and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Seniors and Hypercholesterolemic Subjects by a Combination of Polyphenols and Vitamins.
Dysregulated immune function associated with ageing has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. We have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol, pterostilbene, morin hydrate, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, riboflavinin a variety of experimental animal models, and determined that these compounds act by inhibiting proteasome activity.
To determine whether serum nitric oxide (NO) levels increase with age in humans, and whether the combined cholesterol-lowering and inflammation-reducing properties of resveratrol, pterostilbene, Morin hydrate, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid would reduce cardiovascular risk factors in humans when used as nutritional supplements with, or without, other dietary changes.
Elderly human subjects were stratified into two groups based on total serum cholesterol levels. Initial total serum cholesterol levels were normal and elevated in Group 1 and 2 subjects, respectively. Baseline serum NO, C-reactive protein (CRP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity, uric acid, total antioxidant status (TAS), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were established over a four week period. Group 1 subjects subsequently received nutritional supplementation with one of two different combinations (NS-7 = 25 mg of each, resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, nicotinic acid, morin hydrate or NS-6 = morin hydrate replaced with quercetin, 50 mg/capsule). Group 2 subjects also received these nutritional supplements (two capsules/d), but an AHA Step-1 diet was also implemented. After these interventions were administered for four weeks, the above parameters were re-measured and changes from baseline levels determined. Nitric acid (NO) levels in children, young adults, and seniors were also compared.
The key results of the current study were: 1) that serum NO levels were significantly increased in seniors compared to both children (~80%) and young adults (~65%); 2) that the intake of two capsules/d of NS-7 or NS-6 for four weeks significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum NO (39%, 24%), CRP (19%, 21%), uric acid (6%, 12%) levels, and γ-GT activity (8%, 6%), respectively in free-living healthy seniors; 3) that serum NO (36%, 29%), CRP (29%, 20%), uric acid (6%, 9%) γ-GT activity (9%, 18%), total cholesterol (8%, 11%), LDL-cholesterol (10%, 13%), and triglycerides (16%, 23%) levels were significantly (P < 0.02) decreased in hypercholesterolemic subjects restricted to AHA Step-1 diet plus intake of SN-7 or SN-6 (two capsules/d), respectively; 4) that TAS was increased (3%, 9%; P < 0.05) in free-living healthy seniors receiving NS-7 or NS-6 alone, and in hypercholesterolemic subjects plus AHA Step-1 diet (20%, 12%; P < 0.02) with either of the combinations tested.
Serum NO levels are elevated in elderly humans compared to children or young adults. Diet supplementation with combinations of resveratrol, pterostilbene, morin hydrate, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid reduce cardiovascular risk factors in humans when used as nutritional supplements with, or without, other dietary changes.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Apr 1;16(7):3800-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.01.051. Epub 2008 Jan 31.
Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies of pterostilbene analogs inside PPARalpha.
Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has previously shown PPARalpha activation in H4IIEC3 cells and was found to decrease cholesterol levels in animals. In this study, analogs of pterostilbene were synthesized and their ability to activate PPARalpha was investigated. Among analogs that was synthesized (E)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl)phenyl dihydrogen phosphate showed activity higher than pterostilbene and control drug ciprofibrate. Docking of the stilbenes inside PPARalpha showed the presence of important hydrogen bond interactions for PPARalpha activation.
PMID: 18272370 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.01.051
J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2013 Mar 2;4(3). pii: 238.
Nutritional Supplement-5 with a Combination of Proteasome Inhibitors (Resveratrol, Quercetin, δ-Tocotrienol) Modulate Age-Associated Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Lipid Parameters in Human Subjects.
Age-associated altered redox imbalances and dysregulated immune function, contribute to the development of a variety of age associated diseases. Inflammatory markers and lipid profiles are useful prognostic indicators of a variety of age-associated and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously studied the impact of several proteasome inhibitors on several markers of inflammation and lipid profiles in vitro, in vivo, in cell lines, animal models, and in human subjects. The current study represents an extension of this work. Our main hypothesis is that a combination of various naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediated inflammation, will have better efficacy in the prevention and treatment of age-associated disorders including cardiovascular disease.
Two double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trials were conducted to determine the impact of a mixture of NS-5 (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, nicotinic acid) on serum NO, CRP, γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT) activity, total antioxidant status (TAS), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Healthy seniors (Group-1; n = 32) free-living (A, B; 16/group), and hypercholesterolemic (Group-2; n = 64) subjects on AHA-Step-1-diet were divided into two groups (C, D; 32/group). Baseline levels were established for parameters as mentioned above. Groups A, C were administered 4-capsules/d of NS-5 and groups B, D, placebo (starch) for 6-weeks. Groups were crossed-over, followed by a 2-week wash-out period. Groups A, C were given 4-capsules/d of placebo and groups B, D, 4-capsules/d of NS-5 for 6-weeks. Groups C, D were continued on AHA-Step-1-diet.
All the subjects completed each phase in both studies without any complaints. There were significant ( P < 0.01 – 0.05) decreases in the serum levels of NO (30%, 26%), CRP (29%, 21%), γ-GT activity (14%, 17%), and blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, 3/6%, 3/3%) of Groups A and B, respectively, of free-living healthy seniors without affecting the total, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol or triglycerides compared to their respective baseline values. However, serum levels of NO (36%, 43%), CRP (31%, 48%), γ-GT (17%, 20%), total cholesterol (19%, 15%), LDL-cholesterol (28%, 20%), triglycerides (11%, 18%) of Groups C and D were significantly ( P < 0.01-0.05) decreased with NS-5 treatment of hypercholesterolemic subjects compared to baseline values, without affecting the serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) were increased (10%, 14%; P < 0.05) in Groups A and B, increased (19%, 24%; P < 0.02), and blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, 5/6%, 3/5%) in Groups C and D with NS-5 treatment, compared to respective baseline values.
The consumption of NS-5 mixture decreased significantly serum NO, CRP and γ-GT levels, improved TAS and lipid profiles at risk cardiovascular and hold promise for delaying onset of age-associated diseases.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-ageing agents; C-reactive protein (CRP); Nitric oxide (NO); Quercetin; Resveratrol; Total antioxidant status (TAS); γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT); δ-tocotrienol
J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec 15;68(1-3):71-6.
Occurrence of resveratrol and pterostilbene in age-old darakchasava, an ayurvedic medicine from India.
‘Darakchasava’ is a well known Indian herbal preparation of which the main ingredient is Vitis vinifera L. This ‘ayurvedic’ medicine is prescribed as a cardiotonic and also given for other disorders. HPLC analysis of this age old formulation revealed the presence of polyphenols like resveratrol and pterostilbene. These phenolic compounds are now known as antioxidants, cancer chemopreventive agents, and also known to reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high density lipoproteins like cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation (Soleas, J.S., Diamandis, E.P., Goldberg, D.M., 1997. Resveratrol: a molecule whose time has come? and gone? Clin. Biochem. 30 (2), 91-113). The study of darakchasava becomes interesting in the light of these findings. A brief introduction of this medicinal preparation, its formulation, its analysis by HPLC, and some of its properties are discussed in this article.
Nat Prod Res. 2015;29(24):2332-5. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1008474. Epub 2015 Feb 12.
Chemical characterisation of bioactive compounds in Medicago sativa growing in the desert of Oman.
Medicago sativa Linn growing in Omani desert were chemically characterised using flame photometry, inductively coupled plasma, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. HPLC analyses were performed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids present in M. sativa. The major compounds detected in M. sativa leaves were protchaechenic acid (3.22%), hydroxyl benzoic acid (1.05%), β-Phenyl caffate (0.97%) and kaempherol (0.89%). Pterostilbene, a cholesterol-lowering compound, was detected in M. sativa.
GC; HPLC; ICP analysis; Medicago sativa; medical plant
PMID: 25674815 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1008474
Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Sep 9;15:151. doi: 10.1186/s12944-016-0323-3.
Synergistic combinatorial antihyperlipidemic study of selected natural antioxidants; modulatory effects on lipid profile and endogenous antioxidants.
Hyperlipidemia, a major pathological condition associated with disrupted lipid levels and physiological redox homeostasis. The excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to enhanced lipid peroxidation, aggravated atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Integration of natural antioxidant blends in alone or with conventional treatments can alleviate these issues synergistically contributing least side effects. Published literature reported the efficacy of natural antioxidants as individual and in combinations in various conditions but less data is available on their evaluation in low dose ratio blends particularly in hypercholesterolemic diet.
Antihyperlipidemic effects of selected natural antioxidants; the phenolic oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and pterostilbene (PT) with niacin (NA) were investigated in current study. Their effects on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and their aptitude to establish redox state between oxidants and antioxidants in body were evaluated in high cholesterol diet fed animal model. Male albino rabbits (n = 6) weighing 1.2-1.6 kg, supplemented with high cholesterol diet (400 mg/kg) for 12 weeks were used in the experiment. Antioxidants were administered individual high (100 mg/kg) and in low dose combinations (total dose = 100 mg/kg). Student’s t test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s test were used as statistical tools for evaluation.
The results showed synergistic effects of low dose antioxidant blends. Therapies retarded elevation in blood lipid levels, lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant depletion and consequently contributed in reestablishing redox homeostasis. The LDL/HDL ratio and atherogenic index were suppressed significantly in blend therapies with maximum effects of 59.3 and 25 % (p >0.001) observed in 50:30:20 ratios of OPC, NA and PT, compared to individual therapies 37 and 18 % max respectively. Moreover the results were also in close proximity with the statin therapy (52.66, 26.28 %).
This study provides an evidence for natural antioxidants blends superiority over individual therapy in chronic diseases like hyperlipidemia. Such therapies in human equivalent doses can help in mitigating chronic illnesses in general populations.
Atherosclerosis; Hyperlipidemia; Lipid peroxidation; Redox homeostasis; Synergism
Planta Med. 2008 Oct;74(13):1635-43. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1088301. Epub 2008 Oct 8.
Biological/chemopreventive activity of stilbenes and their effect on colon cancer.
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women in Western countries. Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of fruits and vegetables to a reduced risk of colon cancer, and small fruits are particularly rich sources of many active phytochemical stilbenes, such as resveratrol and pterostilbene. Recent advances in the prevention of colon cancer have stimulated an interest in diet and lifestyle as an effective means of intervention. As constituents of small fruits such as grapes, berries and their products, stilbenes are under intense investigation as cancer chemopreventive agents. One of the best-characterized stilbenes, resveratrol, has been known as an antioxidant and an anti-aging compound as well as an anti-inflammatory agent. Stilbenes have diverse pharmacological activities, which include cancer prevention, a cholesterol-lowering effect, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased lifespan. This review summarizes results related to the potential use of various stilbenes as cancer chemopreventive agents, their mechanisms of action, as well as their pharmacokinetics and efficacy for the prevention of colon cancer in animals and humans.
PMID: 18843589 DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088301