Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2013 May-Jun;50(3):65-78. doi: 10.3109/10408363.2013.805182. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
Pterostilbene: Biomedical applications.
Resveratrol and its naturally dimethylated analog, pterostilbene, show similar biological activities. However, the higher in vivo bioavailability of pterostilbene represents a fundamental advantage. The main focus of this review is on biomedical applications of pterostilbene. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of this stilbene in inflammatory dermatoses and photoprotection, cancer prevention and therapy, insulin sensitivity, blood glycemia and lipid levels, cardiovascular diseases, aging, and memory and cognition are addressed. Safety and toxicity, as well as recommendations for future research and biomedical uses, are discussed. This review includes comparisons between pterostilbene and other polyphenols, with particular emphasis on resveratrol. Potential benefits of using combinations of different polyphenols are considered. Based on present evidences we conclude that pterostilbene is an active phytonutrient and also a potential drug with multiple biomedical applications.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Oct 15;789:229-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.046. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
Promising therapeutic potential of pterostilbene and its mechanistic insight based on preclinical evidence.
Pterostilbene (PS) is a well-recognized antioxidant that primarily exists in blueberries, grapevines and heartwood of red sandalwood. Interest in this compound has been renewed in recent years, and studies have found that PS possesses an array of pharmacological properties, including chemopreventive, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and neuroprotective effects. However, the greater in vivo bioavailability of PS, as compared to resveratrol, is an added advantage for its efficacy. This review provides a summary regarding the sources, pharmacokinetic aspects and pharmacodynamics of PS, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying its protective effects against cancer, brain injuries and heart disease. Studies regarding the safety profile of PS have also been included. Based on the presently available evidence, we conclude that PS represents an active phytonutrient and a potential drug with pleiotropic health applications.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AMPK; Cardiovascular disease; HO-1; NF-κB; Nrf2; Pterostilbene
Semin Cancer Biol. 2016 Oct;40-41:192-208. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2016.09.001. Epub 2016 Sep 5.
Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy.
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. In addition, CSCs are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence, anticancer drug resistance, and metastasis. Hence, compounds targeting breast CSCs may be better therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer and control recurrence and metastasis. Naturally occurring compounds, mainly phytochemicals have gained immense attention in recent times because of their wide safety profile, ability to target heterogeneous populations of cancer cells as well as CSCs, and their key signaling pathways. Therefore, in the present review article, we summarize our current understanding of breast CSCs and their signaling pathways, and the phytochemicals that affect these cells including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin), sulforaphane, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, 3, 3′-di-indolylmethane, vitamin E, retinoic acid, quercetin, parthenolide, triptolide, 6-shogaol, pterostilbene, isoliquiritigenin, celastrol, and koenimbin. These phytochemicals may serve as novel therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment and future leads for drug development.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Breast cancer; Cancer stem cells; Curcumin; Phytochemicals; Signaling pathways