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Colorectal Cancer

Mol CancerTher.2008 Oct;7(10):3330-42. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0363.

Natural polyphenols facilitate elimination of HT-29 colorectal cancer xenografts by chemoradiotherapy: a Bcl-2- and superoxide dismutase 2-dependent mechanism.

Priego S1, Feddi F, Ferrer P, Mena S, Benlloch M, Ortega A, Carretero J, Obrador E, Asensi M, Estrela JM.

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Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with chemotherapy and radiation has two major problems: development of tumor resistance to therapy and nonspecific toxicity towards normal tissues. Different plant-derived polyphenols show anticancer properties and are pharmacologically safe. In vitro growth of human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells is inhibited ( approximately 56%) by bioavailable concentrations of trans-pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene; t-PTER) and quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,6-pentahydroxyflavone; QUER), two structurally related and naturally occurring small polyphenols. I.v. administration of t-PTER and QUER (20 mg/kg x day) inhibits growth of HT-29 xenografts ( approximately 51%). Combined administration of t-PTER + QUER, FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil; a first-line chemotherapy regimen), and radiotherapy (X-rays) eliminates HT-29 cells growing in vivo leading to long-term survival (>120 days). Gene expression analysis of a Bcl-2 family of genes and antioxidant enzymes revealed that t-PTER + QUER treatment preferentially promotes, in HT-29 cells growing in vivo, (a) superoxide dismutase 2 overexpression ( approximately 5.7-fold, via specificity protein 1-dependent transcription regulation) and (b) down-regulation of bcl-2 expression ( approximately 3.3-fold, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation). Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to human superoxide dismutase 2 and/or ectopic bcl-2 overexpression avoided polyphenols and chemoradiotherapy-induced colorectal cancer elimination and showed that the mangano-type superoxide dismutase and Bcl-2 are key targets in the molecular mechanism activated by the combined application of t-PTER and QUER.

PMID: 18852136

CancerPrev Res (Phila).2009 Jul;2(7):650-7. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0224. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene is mediated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in colon cancer cells.

Paul S1, Rimando AM, Lee HJ, Ji Y, Reddy BS, Suh N.

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Oxidative/nitrosative stress and generation of proinflammatory cytokines are hallmarks of inflammation. Because chronic inflammation is implicated in several pathologic conditions in humans, including cancers of the colon, anti-inflammatory compounds may be useful chemopreventive agents against colon cancer. Stilbenes, such as resveratrol, have diverse pharmacologic activities, which include anti-inflammation, cancer prevention, a cholesterol-lowering effect, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased life span. We previously showed that pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene), a structural analogue of resveratrol, is present in blueberries and that pterostilbene inhibited expression of certain inflammation-related genes in the colon and suppressed aberrant crypt foci formation in rats. Here, we examined molecular mechanisms of the action of pterostilbene in colon cancer. Pterostilbene reduced cell proliferation, down-regulated the expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1, and increased the level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. A combination of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma, and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide) induced inflammation-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which was significantly suppressed by treatment with pterostilbene. We further identified upstream signaling pathways contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of pterostilbene by investigating multiple signaling pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB, Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Cytokine induction of the p38-activating transcription factor 2 pathway was markedly inhibited by pterostilbene among the different mediators of signaling evaluated. By silencing the expression of the p38 alpha isoform, there was significant reduction in cytokine induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Our data suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is a key signal transduction pathway for eliciting the anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene in cultured HT-29 colon cancer cells.

PMID: 19549798

J Agric Food Chem.2011 Oct 26;59(20):10964-70. doi: 10.1021/jf202846b. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Inhibitory effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on human colon cancer cells: a side-by-side comparison.

Nutakul W1, Sobers HS, Qiu P, Dong P, Decker EA, McClements DJ, Xiao H.

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The effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene (two structurally related stilbene compounds) on three human colon cancer cells were systematically compared. Cell viability tests indicated that IC(50) values of pterostilbene were 2-5-fold lower than those of resveratrol in all three cancer cells. Pterostilbene was also more potent in inhibiting colony formation of all three cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide costaining assay and Western blotting analysis showed pterostilbene had a stronger apoptosis-inducing effect, which was evidenced by the higher percentage of annexin V positive cells and higher levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteins in cancer cells treated with pterostilbene compared with resveratrol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that intracellular levels of pterostilbene were 2-4-fold higher than those of resveratrol after treatments with individual compounds at the same concentration. Overall, the results demonstrated that pterostilbene had more potent inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells than resveratrol, which may be associated with the superior bioavailability of pterostilbene to resveratrol.

PMID: 21936500

Acta Pol Pharm.2014 Nov-Dec;71(6):1051-5.

In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of pterostilbene against human colon cancer cells.

Wawszczyk J, Kapral M, Hollek A, Węglarz L.


Colon cancer has been remaining the second leading cause of cancer mortality in Poland in the last years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies reveal that dietary phytochemicals may exert chemopreventive and therapeutic effect against colorectal cancer. There is a growing interest in identifying new biologically active agents from dietary sources in this respect. Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbene, that has been found to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Compared to other stilbenes, pterostilbene has greater bioavailability, and so, a greater potential for clinical applications. Recent studies showed that pterostilbene exhibits the hallmark characteristics of an anticancer agent. The aim of this study was to analyze antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of pterostilbene on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. They were cultured using standard techniques and exposed to increasing doses of pterostilbene (5-100 μM) for 48 and 72 h. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The growth of treated cells was expressed as a percentage of that of untreated control cells. Pterostilbene decreased proliferation rate of Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its concentrations = 25 μM did not affect cell growth after 48 h treatment period. Significant growth inhibition was observed in cultures incubated with higher concentrations of pterostilbene (40-100 μM). Pterostilbene at all concentrations used (5-100 μM) caused significant inhibition of cell proliferation when the experimental time period was elongated to 72 h. The maximum growth reduction was observed at 100 mM pterostilbene. The cytotoxicity of pterostilbene was evaluated in 48 h cultures based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the culture medium and showed dose-related pattern. The findings of this study showed significant dose-dependent antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of pterostilbene against human colon cancer cells in vitro.

PMID: 25745778

Sci Rep.2015 Oct 16;5:15239. doi: 10.1038/srep15239.

Pterostilbine, an active component of blueberries, sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity.

Tolba MF1,2, Abdel-Rahman SZ3.

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Although colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first line of therapy for this debilitating disease, treatment effectiveness is often hampered by the development of drug resistance and toxicity at high doses. ER-β can play an important role in CRC development and possibly in its response to therapy. Pterostilbene (PT) possesses antioxidant and anticancer effects that are mediated by ER-β. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PT sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU and we examine the underlying mechanism(s) by which PT exerts its cytotoxic effects in CRC cells. Our data indicate that PT exhibited a more potent cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 compared to HCT-116 cells. PT/5-FU co-treatment was more effective in Caco-2 cells. Our data indicate that ER-β is expressed at higher levels in Caco-2 cells and its levels are further boosted with PT treatment. PT significantly suppressed Akt and ERK phosphorylations, and enhanced FOXO-1 and p27(kip1) levels in Caco-2 cells. PT also induced a significant increase in Caco-2 cells at pre-G phase coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. These results provide a rationale for novel combination treatment strategies, especially for patients with 5-FU-resistant tumors expressing ER-β protein.

PMID: 26472352

Mol Nutr Food Res.2016 Sep;60(9):1924-32. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500989. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Identification of pinostilbene as a major colonic metabolite of pterostilbene and its inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells.

Sun Y1,2,Wu X2, Cai X2, Song M2, Zheng J2,3, Pan C2, Qiu P1,2, Zhang L1, Zhou S4, Tang Z4, Xiao H5,6.

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SCOPE: Pterostilbene(PTE) is a resveratrol derivative mainly found in blueberries, and it has been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in multiple animal models. To shed light on the mechanism of PTE in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the PTE metabolites in the mouse colon and in the human colon cancer cells.

METHODS AND RESULTS: CD-1 mice were fed PTE-containing diet for 3 weeks, and colonic content and colonic mucosa were collected and subjected to LC-MS analysis. Pinostilbene (PIN) was identified as a major metabolite of PTE in the mouse colon. Importantly, the level of PIN was found to be approximately equivalent to that of PTE in the colonic mucosa. PIN significantly inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells, i.e., HCT116 and HT29. These inhibitory effects were similar to those produced by PTE. Moreover, under physiologically relevant conditions, 20 and 40 μM of PIN caused cell cycle arrest at S phase and induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. These effects were associated with profound modulation of signaling proteins related with cell proliferation and programmed cell death.

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that PIN is a major metabolite of PTE in the colon of mice fed with PTE, and PIN may play important roles in the anti-colon cancer effects elicited by orally administered PTE.

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

KEYWORDS: Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest; Colon cancer; Metabolite; Pinostilbene; Pterostilbene

PMID: 26990242