Inspired by Nature – Designed to Rejuvenate

Lung Cancer



J Surg Res.2010 Jun 1;161(1):18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.06.027. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Pterostilbene inhibits lung cancer through induction of apoptosis.

Schneider JG1,Alosi JA, McDonald DE, McFadden DW.

Author information


BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant found in grapes that inhibits several types of cancer, including lung cancer. Herein, we investigated the effects of pterostilbene, an analog of resveratrol found in blueberries, on lung cancer, in vitro. We hypothesized that pterostilbene would inhibit lung cancer cell growth in vitro by a pro-apoptotic mechanism.

METHODS: Two lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H460 and SK-MES-1) were cultured using standard techniques. Cells were treated with increasing doses of pterostilbene(10-100 microM). Cell viability was measured at 24, 48, and 72h using a MTT assay. Apo-ONE Caspase-3/7 assay was used to evaluate caspase activity. T-test and two-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Pterostilbene significantly decreased cell viability in lung cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P<0.001). Concentrations greater than 20 microM of pterostilbene reduced significant growth inhibition by 72h (P<0.001). Apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activity were significantly increased by pterostilbene treatment (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Pterostilbene inhibits growth via apoptosis induction in vitro. Further in vitro mechanistic studies and in vivo experiments are warranted to determine the potential role for pterostilbene in lung cancer treatment or prevention.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20031166

PLoS One.2013 May 3;8(5):e62652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062652. Print 2013.

Pterostilbene exerts antitumor activity via the Notch1 signaling pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Yang Y1, Yan X, Duan W, Yan J, Yi W, Liang Z, Wang N, Li Y, Chen W, Yu S, Jin Z, Yi D.

Author information


Although pterostilbene (PTE) has been shown to have potent antitumor activities against various cancer types, the molecular mechanisms of these activities remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of PTE against human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo and explored the role of the Notch1 signaling pathway in this process. PTE treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the viability of A549 cells. Additionally, PTE exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and a decreased intracellular glutathione content but also by increases in the apoptotic index and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, PTE treatment induced the activation of the Notch1 Intracellular Domain (NICD) protein and activated Hes1. DAPT (a gamma secretase inhibitor) and Notch1 siRNA prevented the induction of NICD and Hes1 activation by PTE treatment and sensitized the cells to PTE treatment. The down-regulation of Notch signaling also prevented the activation of pro-survival pathways (most notably the PI3K/Akt pathway) after PTE treatment. In summary, lung adenocarcinoma cells may enhance Notch1 activation as a protective mechanism in response to PTE treatment. Combining a gamma secretase inhibitor with PTE treatment may represent a novel approach for treating lung adenocarcinoma by inhibiting the survival pathways of cancer cells.

PMID: 23671619

Toxicol Sci.2014 Jan;137(1):65-75. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft238. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

A combination of pterostilbene with autophagy inhibitors exerts efficient apoptotic characteristics in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant lung cancer cells.

Hsieh MJ1,Lin CW, Yang SF, Sheu GT, Yu YY, Chen MK, Chiou HL.

Author information


The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), meaning that cancer cells develop simultaneous resistance to different drugs, has limited the clinical efficacy and application of chemotherapy. Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring phytoalexin exerts a variety of pharmacologic activities, including cancer prevention, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity. In this study, results proved the capability of pterostilbene to effectively inhibit the cell viability of docetaxel-induced MDR human lung cancer cell lines through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the observation of LC3-II production and formation of acidic vesicular organelles revealed an induction of autophagy at an early stage by pterostilbene, which was triggered by an inhibition of the AKT and JNK pathways and activation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 or with beclin-1 small interfering RNA was able to enhance pterostilbene-triggered apoptosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that pterostilbene causes autophagy and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, pterostilbene in combination with autophagy inhibitors may strengthen the efficiency of chemotherapeutic strategies in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant lung cancer cells, which may be of immense value for the clinical management of lung cancer patients with MDR.

KEYWORDS: apoptosis; autophagy.; multidrug resistance; pterostilbene

PMID: 24154491

J Pharm Biomed Anal.2015 Oct 10;114:200-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2015.04.045. Epub 2015 May 29.

UPLC-MS method for quantification of pterostilbene and its application to comparative study of bioavailability and tissue distribution in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice.

Deng L1,Li Y2, Zhang X3, Chen B1, Deng Y1, Li Y1.

Author information


A UPLC-MS method was developed for determination of pterostilbene(PTS) in plasma and tissues of mice. PTS was separated on Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear calibration curve of PTS in mouse plasma and tissues ranged from 1.0 to 5000 and 0.50 to 500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.9979), respectively, with lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the assay were satisfactory. The validated method was applied to the study of bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice. The bioavailability of PTS (dose 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg) in normal mice were 11.9%, 13.9% and 26.4%, respectively; and the maximum level (82.1 ± 14.2 μg/g) was found in stomach (dose 28 mg/kg). The bioavailability, peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax) of PTS in LLC mice was increased compared with normal mice. The results indicated the UPLC-MS method is reliable and bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and LLC mice were dramatically different.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Bioavailability;Pterostilbene; Tissue distribution; UPLC–MS

PMID: 26070162

PLoS One.2016 Sep 9;11(9):e0162335. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162335. eCollection 2016.

ATM/CHK/p53 Pathway Dependent Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Activity on Lung Cancer by Pterostilbene.

Lee H1, Kim Y2, Jeong JH1, Ryu JH1, Kim WY1.

Author information


Among the many stilbenoids found in a variety of berries, resveratrol and pterostilbene are of particular interest given their potential for use in cancer therapeutics and prevention. We purified four stilbenoids from R. undulatum and found that pterostilbene inhibits cancer cell proliferation more efficiently than rhapontigenin, piceatannol and resveratrol. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this superior action of pterostilbene on cancer cells, we utilized a reverse-phase protein array followed by bioinformatic analysis and found that the ATM/CHK pathway is modified by pterostilbene in a lung cancer cell line. Given that ATM/CHK signaling requires p53 for its biological effects, we hypothesized that p53 is required for the anticancer effect of pterostilbene. To test this hypothesis, we used two molecularly defined precancerous human bronchial epithelial cell lines, HBECR and HBECR/p53i, with normal p53 and suppressed p53 expression, respectively, to represent premalignant states of squamous lung carcinogenesis. Pterostilbene inhibited the cell cycle more efficiently in HBECR cellglis compared to HBECR/p53i cells, suggesting that the presence of p53 is required for the action of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene also activated ATM and CHK1/2, which are upstream of p53, in both cell lines, though pterostilbene-induced senescence was dependent on the presence of p53. Finally, pterostilbene more effectively inhibited p53-dependent cell proliferation compared to the other three stilbenoids. These results strongly support the potential chemopreventive effect of pterostilbene on p53-positive cells during early carcinogenesis.

PMID: 27612029

J Hematol Oncol.2017 Mar 21;10(1):72. doi: 10.1186/s13045-017-0441-z.

Pterostilbene prevents AKT-ERK axis-mediated polymerization of surface fibronectin on suspended lung cancer cells independently of apoptosis and suppresses metastasis.

Wang YJ1,2,3,4,Lin JF1, Cheng LH5, Chang WT5,6, Kao YH7, Chang MM6, Wang BJ1,8,9, Cheng HC10,11.

Author information


BACKGROUND: Polymeric fibronectin (polyFN) assembled on suspended breast cancer cells is required for metastasis. Conceivably, drugs that target such polyFN may fight against cancer metastasis. While stilbene analogs trigger pro-apoptotic effect on attached cancer cells, whether they prevent polyFN assembly and metastasis of suspended cancer cells via an apoptosis-independent manner remains unexplored.

METHODS: We depleted suspended Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells of polyFN by silencing the endogenous FN expression or pterostilbene(PS) to examine whether metastasis of lung cancer cells could thus be suppressed. We investigated whether PS regulates AKT-ERK signaling axis to suppress polyFN assembly in suspended LLC cells independently of apoptosis. We tested the therapeutic effects of orally administered PS against cancer metastasis.

RESULTS: Both FN-silencing and PS among the three stilbenoids indeed significantly reduced polyFN assembly and lung metastasis of suspended LLC cells in an apoptosis-independent manner. Mechanistically, PS-induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and suppressed ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in suspended LLC cells, whereas pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, effectively reduced pAKT, rescued pERK, and consequently reversed the PS-suppressed polyFN assembly on LLC cells; these pretreatment effects were then overturned by the ERK inhibitor U0126. Indeed, PS-suppressed lung metastasis was counteracted by LY294002, which was further overruled with U0126. Finally, we found that PS, when orally administered in experimental metastasis assays, both significantly prevented lung colonization and metastasis of LLC cells and reduced the already established tumor growth in the mouse lungs.

CONCLUSIONS: PS suppressed AKT/ERK-regulated polyFN assembly on suspended LLC cells and pulmonary metastasis. PS possesses potency in both preventing and treating lung metastasis of lung cancer cells in apoptosis-independent and apoptosis-dependent manners, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Fibronectin; PI3K/AKT/ERK signaling; Pericellular assembly; Pterostilbene; Pulmonary localization

PMID: 28327179