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Activator of SIRT1


Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 Sep 1.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Sep; 68(3): 593–601.

Published online 2010 Nov 30. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1525-4

Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolic profile of resveratrol and its dimethylether analog, pterostilbene, in rats

Izet M. Kapetanovic, Miguel Muzzio, Zhihua Huang, Thomas N. Thompson, and David L. McCormickAuthor information ►Copyright and License information ►

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Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol with a broad range of possible health benefits, including anti-cancer activity. However, the biological activity of resveratrol may be limited by poor absorption and first-pass metabolism: only low plasma concentrations of resveratrol are seen following oral administration, and metabolism to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates is rapid. Methylated polyphenol analogs (such as pterostilbene [3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxy-trans-stilbene], the dimethylether analog of resveratrol) may overcome these limitations to pharmacologic efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of resveratrol and pterostilbene following equimolar oral dosing in rats.

Methods: The agents were administered orally via gavage for 14 consecutive days at 50 or 150 mg/kg/day for resveratrol and 56 or 168 mg/kg/day for pterostilbene. Two additional groups were dosed once intravenously with 10 and 11.2 mg/kg for resveratrol and pterostilbene, respectively. Plasma concentrations of agents and metabolites were measured using a high-pressure liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer system. Noncompartmental analysis was used to derive pharmacokinetic parameters.

Results: Resveratrol and pterostilbene were approximately 20 and 80% bioavailable, respectively. Following oral dosing, plasma levels of pterostilbene and pterostilbene sulfate were markedly greater than were plasma levels of resveratrol and resveratrol sulfate. Although plasma levels of resveratrol glucuronide exceeded those of pterostilbene glucuronide, those differences were smaller than those of the parent drugs and sulfate metabolites.

Conclusions: When administered orally, pterostilbene demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma levels of both the parent compound and metabolites than does resveratrol. These differences in agent pharmacokinetics suggest that the in vivo biological activity of equimolar doses of pterostilbene may be greater than that of resveratrol.

Keywords: Resveratrol, Pterostilbene, Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, Metabolites, Rat

PMCID: PMC3090701

Phytother Res.2008 Feb;22(2):169-79.

Pharmacometrics of pterostilbene: preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activity.

Remsberg CM1, Yáñez JA, Ohgami Y, Vega-Villa KR, Rimando AM, Davies NM.

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The present study evaluated the preclinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of trans-pterostilbene, a constituent of some plants. Right jugular vein cannulated male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed i.v. with 20 mg/kg of pterostilbene and samples were analysed by the reverse phase HPLC method. Serum AUC, serum t(1/2), urine t(1/2), Cl(total) and Vd(beta) were 17.5 +/- 6.6 microg/h/mL, 1.73 +/- 0.78 h, 17.3 +/- 5.6 h, 0.960 +/- 0.025 L/h/kg and 2.41 +/- 1.13 L/kg (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A pterostilbene glucuronidated metabolite was detected in both serum and urine. The in vitro metabolism in rat liver microsomes furthermore suggests phase II metabolism of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene demonstrated concentration-dependent anticancer activity in five cancer cell lines (1-100 microg/mL). An in vitro colitis model showed concentration-dependent suppression of PGE(2) production in the media of HT-29 cells. Antiinflammatory activity was examined by inducing inflammation in canine chondrocytes followed by treatment with pterostilbene (1-100 microg/mL). The results showed decreased levels of MMP-3, sGAG and TNF-alpha compared with control levels. Pterostilbene exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS method. Pterostilbene increased the latency period to response in both tail-flick and hot-plate analgesic tests.

PMID: 17726731 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2277

Int Immunopharmacol.2017 Aug;49:50-59. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.05.022. Epub 2017 May 25.

Pterostilbene alleviates polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver injury: Possible role of SIRT1 signaling.

Liu X1, Yang X1, Han L2, Ye F1, Liu M1, Fan W1, Zhang K1, Kong Y1, Zhang J3, Shi L1, Chen Y1, Zhang X4, Lin S5.

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Liver injury occurs frequently during sepsis. Pterostilbene (Pte), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol from blueberries, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, the role of Pte in sepsis-induced liver injury and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Pte on sepsis-induced liver injury and its potential mechanisms. Sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered Pte (5, 10, 15mg/kg, i.p.) at 0.5h, 2h, and 8h after CLP induction. The pathological changes of the liver were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), Bax, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were also evaluated. Pte treatment attenuated the CLP-induced liver injury, as evidenced by the attenuated histopathologic injuries and the decreased serum aminotransferase levels. Pte reduced the serum inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Pte also reduced MPO activity and p38MAPK activation in the liver. Additionally, Pte significantly inhibited Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, Pte increased the expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and reduced the expression of acetylated forkhead box O1 (Ac-FoxO1), acetylated Ac-p53, and acetylated nuclear factor-kappa beta (Ac-NF-κB). However, SIRT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished Pte’s effects on the expression levels of those protein. Notably, Pte improved the survival rate in septic mice. In conclusion, Pte alleviates sepsis-induced liver injury by reducing inflammatory response and inhibiting hepatic apoptosis, and the potential mechanism is associated with SIRT1 signaling activation.

KEYWORDS: Inflammation; Liver injury; Pterostilbene; SIRT1 signaling; Sepsis

PMID: 28550734 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.05.022

J Nutr Biochem.2017 May;43:151-155. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.02.009. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Pterostilbene, a dimethylated analog of resveratrol, promotes energy metabolism in obese rats.

Nagao K1, Jinnouchi T2, Kai S2, Yanagita T3.

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Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a dimethylated analog of resveratrol and has been reported to exert various pharmacological effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pterostilbene on the pathogenesis of obesity and energy metabolism in obese rats. Pterostilbene significantly activates silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in vitro. At 4 weeks a 0.5% pterostilbene diet markedly suppressed the abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation in obese rats. The oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly higher in the pterostilbene group, and pterostilbene increased the fat metabolism rather than the carbohydrate metabolism in obese rats. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein, a thermogenic regulator, was increased and the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase and leptin, which are involved in lipogenesis and fat storage, were markedly decreased in WAT after the pterostilbene feeding. These results suggest that pterostilbene prevents WAT accumulation through the enhancement of energy metabolism and partly the suppression of lipogenesis in obese OLETF rats.

KEYWORDS: Energy expenditure; Obesity; PPARα; Pterostilbene; SIRT1

PMID: 28319852 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.02.009

Apoptosis.2016 Aug;21(8):905-16. doi: 10.1007/s10495-016-1258-x.

SIRT1 activation by pterostilbene attenuates the skeletal muscle oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ischemia reperfusion injury.

Cheng Y1,2, Di S3, Fan C3, Cai L4, Gao C4, Jiang P4, Hu W5, Ma Z3, Jiang S6, Dong Y7, Li T5, Wu G5, Lv J5, Yang Y8.

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Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is harmful to skeletal muscles and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Pterostilbene (PTE), an analogue of resveratrol, has organic protective effects against oxidative stress. However, no studies have investigated whether PTE can protect against IR-related skeletal muscular injury. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effect of PTE against IR-related skeletal muscle injury and to determine the mechanisms in this process. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with PTE for a week and then underwent limb IR surgery. The IR injury induced segmental necrosis and apoptosis, myofilament disintegration, thicker interstitial spaces, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in the muscular tissue was inhibited, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde concentration and myeloperoxidase activity were up-regulated, and superoxide dismutase was down-regulated after IR. However, these effects were significantly inhibited by PTE in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism underlying IR injury is attributed to the down-regulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)-FOXO1/p53 pathway and the increase of the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, Cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1, Cleaved Caspase 3, which can be reversed with PTE. Furthermore, EX527, an SIRT1 inhibitor, counteracted the protective effects of PTE on IR-related muscle injury. In conclusion, PTE has protective properties against IR injury of the skeletal muscles. The mechanism of this protective effect depends on the activation of the SIRT1-FOXO1/p53 signaling pathway and the decrease of the apoptotic ratio in skeletal muscle cells.

KEYWORDS: Ischemia reperfusion injury; Mitochondrial function; Pterostilbene; Silent information regulator 1; Skeletal muscle

PMID: 27270300 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-016-1258-x

Eur J Pharmacol.2016 Apr 5;776:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.02.052. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Restoration of sirt1 function by pterostilbene attenuates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in cardiomyocytes. 

Guo Y1, Zhang L2, Li F2, Hu CP3, Zhang Z4.

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Restoration of blood supply to ischemic myocardium causes cardiomyocyte damage, a process known as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Excess reactive oxygen species and intracellular calcium contribute to cell damage but the involvement of sirt1, a versatile protein deacetylase in reperfusion-induced cell damage remains unknown. Here, we found that hypoxia-reoxygenation, an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis as revealed by caspase-3 assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometric analysis and JC-1 staining. Molecular docking analysis showed that, pterostilbene, a natural dimethyl ether derivative of resveratrol, binds to the enzymatic active pocket of sirt1. Importantly, application of pterostilbene at low concentrations of 0.1-3.0 μM rescued H9c2 cells from apoptosis, an effect comparable with resveratrol at 20 μM. Mechanistically, pterostilbene exerted its cardioprotective effects via 1) stimulation of sirt1 activity, since pretreatment of H9c2 cells with splitomicin, an antagonist of sirt1, removed the effects of pterostilbene, and 2) enhancement of sirt1 expression. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that activation of sitr1 during ischemia-reperfusion is cardioprotective and that the natural compound-pterostilbene-could be used therapeutically to alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury.

KEYWORDS: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Pterostilbene; Sirt1

PMID: 26921129 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.02.052

BMC Cancer.2015 Oct 12;15:672. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1693-z.

Epigenetic-based combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene alters DNA damage response by affecting SIRT1 and DNMT enzyme expression, including SIRT1-dependent γ-H2AX and telomerase regulation in triple-negative breast cancer.

Kala R1, Shah HN2, Martin SL3, Tollefsbol TO4,5,6,7,8.

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BACKGROUND: Nutrition is believed to be a primary contributor in regulating gene expression by affecting epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are phytoalexins produced by plants as part of their defense system. These two bioactive compounds when used alone have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells, but the concentrations employed in various studies often far exceed physiologically achievable doses. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an often fatal condition that may be prevented or treated through novel dietary-based approaches.

METHODS: HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells were used as TNBC cell lines in this study. MCF10A cells were used as control breast epithelial cells to determine the safety of this dietary regimen. CompuSyn software was used to determine the combination index (CI) for drug combinations.

RESULTS: Combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene administered at close to physiologically relevant doses resulted in synergistic (CI <1) growth inhibition of TNBCs. SIRT1, a type III histone deacetylase (HDAC), was down-regulated in response to this combinatorial treatment. We further explored the effects of this novel combinatorial approach on DNA damage response by monitoring γ-H2AX and telomerase expression. With combination of these two compounds there was a significant decrease in these two proteins which might further resulted in significant growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells, while there was no significant effect on cellular viability, colony forming potential, morphology or apoptosis in control MCF10A breast epithelial cells. SIRT1 knockdown reproduced the effects of combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene-induced SIRT1 down-regulation through inhibition of both telomerase activity and γ-H2AX expression in HCC1806 breast cancer cells. As a part of the repair mechanisms and role of SIRT1 in recruiting DNMTs, the effects of this combination treatment was also explored on DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression. Interestingly, the compounds resulted in a significant down-regulation of DNMT enzymes with no significant effects on DNMT enzyme expression in MCF10A control cells.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms of a novel combinatorial nutrient control strategy that exhibits synergy and may contribute to future recalcitrant TNBC prevention and/or therapy.

PMID: 26459286 PMCID: PMC4603342DOI: 10.1186/s12885-015-1693-z

Mol Nutr Food Res.2014 Mar;58(3):528-536. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300266. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Synergistic induction of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression by vitamin D and stilbenoids.

Guo C#1,2, Sinnott B#1,2, Niu B3, Lowry MB1,4, Fantacone ML1,2, Gombart AF1,2.

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SCOPE: The cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is induced by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2 D3), lithocholic acid, curcumin, nicotinamide, and butyrate. Discovering additional small molecules that regulate its expression will identify new molecular mechanisms involved in CAMP regulation and increase understanding of how diet and nutrition can improve immune function.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We discovered that two stilbenoids, resveratrol and pterostilbene, induced CAMP promoter-luciferase expression. Synergistic activation was observed when either stilbenoid was combined with 1α,25(OH)2 D3. Both stilbenoids increased CAMP mRNA and protein levels in the monocyte cell line U937 and synergy was observed in both U937 and the keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Inhibition of resveratrol targets sirtuin-1, cyclic AMP production and the c-Jun N-terminal, phosphoinositide 3 and AMP-activated kinases did not block induction of CAMP by resveratrol or synergy with 1α,25(OH)2 D3. Nevertheless, inhibition of the extracellular signal regulated 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, increased CAMP gene expression in combination with 1α,25(OH)2 D3 suggesting that inhibition of these kinases by resveratrol may explain, in part, its synergy with vitamin D.

CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that stilbenoid compounds may have the potential to boost the innate immune response by increasing CAMP gene expression, particularly in combination with 1α,25(OH)2 D3.

© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

KEYWORDS: Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide; Innate immunity; Resveratrol; Stilbenoid; Vitamin D receptor

PMID: 24039193 PMCID: PMC3947465DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201300266

Neurobiol Aging.2012 Sep;33(9):2062-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.08.015. Epub 2011 Oct 7.

Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer’s disease.

Chang J1, Rimando A, Pallas M, Camins A, Porquet D, Reeves J, Shukitt-Hale B, Smith MA, Joseph JA, Casadesus G.

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Recent studies have implicated resveratrol and pterostilbene, a resveratrol derivative, in the protection against age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism for the favorable effects of resveratrol in the brain remains unclear and information about direct cross-comparisons between these analogs is rare. As such, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of diet-achievable supplementation of resveratrol to that of pterostilbene at improving functional deficits and AD pathology in the SAMP8 mouse, a model of accelerated aging that is increasingly being validated as a model of sporadic and age-related AD. Furthermore we sought to determine the mechanism of action responsible for functional improvements observed by studying cellular stress, inflammation, and pathology markers known to be altered in AD. Two months of pterostilbene diet but not resveratrol significantly improved radial arm water maze function in SAMP8 compared with control-fed animals. Neither resveratrol nor pterostilbene increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression or downstream markers of sirtuin 1 activation. Importantly, markers of cellular stress, inflammation, and AD pathology were positively modulated by pterostilbene but not resveratrol and were associated with upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha expression. Taken together our findings indicate that at equivalent and diet-achievable doses pterostilbene is a more potent modulator of cognition and cellular stress than resveratrol, likely driven by increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression and increased lipophilicity due to substitution of hydroxy with methoxy group in pterostilbene.

PMID: 21982274 DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.08.015